OPENSEA Platform for autonomous surf-zone crawler

C-2 Innovations (C-2i) chose Greensea when they were developing a family of amphibious and autonomous systems that operate in surf, rivers, and marshes. Greensea provided navigation, control, autonomy, and vehicle specific user interface built on OPENSEA®. OPENSEA is Greensea’s commercially available, open architecture platform for marine robotics that is currently in use around the world in thousands of systems.

Open Architecture Navigation

C-2i’s requirement for navigation was high accuracy and able to function above and below the water surface in a variety of different water quality environments. SWaP-C (size, weight, power, cost) were also major considerations as there wasn’t much space or power available in the crawler.

As Greensea’s navigation solutions are open architecture, C-2i was able to build a solution to ideally match their current requirements without locking themselves into a single configuration. The navigation system can be modified at any time in the future either by adding, removing, or changing the aiding sensors.

OPENSEA Vehicle Control and Automation

OPENSEA has a robust and comprehensive vehicle control and automation suite that gives the C-2i vehicle a multi-state vehicle controller with both open and closed loops.


  • Open-loop: Operator drives the vehicle with a remote control interface (Playstation joystick, custom controller, or on-screen controls)
  • Auto-heading and auto-velocity: Closing the loop around heading and ground speed, the controller will provide for auto-heading and auto-velocity.
  • Fly-by-wire: Using an attached joystick, the operator can drive the vehicle with a remote control interface but in fly-by-wire mode, the auto-heading and auto-velocity controllers are enabled to provide a more accurate motion command.
  • Waypoint tracking: The vehicle navigates to a waypoint at a specified speed.

OPENSEA Workspace and Mission Planning

Workspace is OPENSEA’s user interface

OPENSEA has a comprehensive graphical user interface for operating and managing robotic systems called Workspace. Workspace provides vehicle operation and monitoring, mission planning, diagnostics, maintenance support, and communications support. Workspace also provides a complete operating environment for remote assets by integrating payloads, data, navigation, and control into a single window.

Payload Support and Future Development

OPENSEA becomes C-2i vehicle software with a thin implementation layer of software and configuration files. These software modules and configuration files encapsulate the specific control requirements of the C-2i vehicle, specific payloads, and graphical widgets required to provide operators the appropriate interfaces to C-2i system.

Because the specific vehicle software and configuration files represent a small percentage of the overall software code and is easily modifiable, it will be an easy lift to add new products. OPENSEA provides a software framework common to their current (and future) robots that will provide navigation, vehicle control, autonomy, and mission planning, enabling the low-risk development of new capabilities and technologies.

To learn more about C-2 Innovations, visit their website.

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